Are Indian Hawthorn Berries Poisonous To Birds – In the “You Asked” column in each issue of Birdwatching, contributing editor Julie Craves answers readers’ questions about birds and bird behavior. Here is a question from our March/April 2019 issue.
Q: I thought apple seeds should not be eaten because they contain cyanide. I have read that hawthorns are related to apples and contain cyanide in the seeds. But I see birds eating hawthorn fruit all the time. Can eating hawthorns poison birds? –
Are Indian Hawthorn Berries Poisonous To Birds
Answer: The seeds of many trees, including cherries, almonds, apples, crabapples, and hawthorns, contain varying amounts of a compound called amygdalin. Hydrogen cyanide can be formed and released from the seeds when they are chewed or damaged. Most fruit seeds are low in amygdalin, and humans would have to chew too many seeds to cause harm. Although obviously much smaller, birds eating hawthorn and crabapple fruits swallow them whole and the seeds pass through the bird’s digestive tract, with little or no chance of hydrogen cyanide being released.
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Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic compounds commonly found in fruits eaten by many birds – both in the seeds and the pulp. At least some bird species, such as the cedar waxwing, are more tolerant of these compounds than mammals because their digestive processes are different. It is believed that various chemicals are present in the seeds and fruits to discourage consumption by mammals, which will disrupt plant reproduction, while birds are able to fulfill their role as seed dispersers.
Sign up for our free e-newsletter to get news, bird photos, interesting and ID tips and more delivered to your inbox. Beth Bolles | April 7, 2015 | Best management practices, diseases, garden design, general gardening, insects, installation, ornamental shrubs
. Although not native to Florida, it can be a very attractive shrub when used properly in landscapes. The plants produce pink and white spring flowers followed by berries that are a food source for birds.
Indian hawthorn trees in landscapes are susceptible to several pests that produce stunted and unhealthy plants. A leaf spot fungus called Entomosporium leaf spot is easily spread from infected plants through irrigation and rainfall causing leaf discoloration, leaf drop and limb dieback. Scale insects can also be common on leaves causing yellowing. The fungal problem is difficult to manage on heavily infected plants but the scale can be managed with a less toxic pesticide choice such as a horticultural oil.
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A heavy infestation of leaf spot fungus is often very difficult to control when plants are irrigated regularly.
Most Indian hawthorn problems, especially fungi, are the result of poor management. This shrub prefers sun, well-drained soil, and no overhead irrigation. Once established, the plant will require little supplemental irrigation and water should be applied only to the base of the plant. Since the plants usually form a rounded mound, pruning is not necessary if properly spaced and properly spaced at planting time. Most landscape installations of Indian hawthorn space plants are based on gallon pot size and not on the mature size of the plant which is about 3-5 feet in height and spread.
Indian Hawthorn can still be a good selection for homeowners. Buy healthy plants with no signs of leaf spots and do not monoculture these plants in the landscape. If a tree has a serious pest problem, it is easier to treat or remove one tree versus mass planting. Don’t you love how plants can seriously enhance your home’s ambiance and overall decor? And speaking of ornamental plants, you can’t miss the heuchera varieties. These lovely plants offer a different structure than other plants, but there are many heuchera varieties to choose from. Keep reading and learn all you need to know about the different Heuchera varieties.
If you’ve decided to get a new plant to decorate your garden and home, you can’t go wrong with the Heuchera variety. Whether you’re expanding your collection or simply starting out, a heuchera plant is a great option. Heuchera cultivars are prized for their wavy and colorful ornamental leaves. Known for their fall colors, their nectar-rich flowers attract both butterflies and hummingbirds in spring and summer.
Rhaphiolepis Indica (indian Hawthorn, Yeddo Hawthorn)
With so many varieties, they can be quite difficult to identify. But to confirm one thing; You will find a heuchera type that suits every environment and therefore a good taste. Discover how heuchera varieties can enhance your garden and take your plant collection to the next level.
Indian Hawthorns (Rhaphiolepis species and hybrids) are mostly low-growing, evergreen, flowering shrubs. They are ideal low-maintenance plants with a dense mounding growth habit for use in small gardens and foundation plantings.
Most varieties are 3 to 6 feet tall and about the same in width. A few large shrubs that can be trained into a small tree.
Yes, there are several dwarf breeds. Among the most common we find is the dwarf pink Indian hawthorn, an evergreen shrub that grows to 3 feet tall and wide. Produces deep rose-pink flowers in spring and then occasionally in summer. Winter leaves turn bronze-red. It makes an excellent flowering hedge, specimen or accent plant for your garden.
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In terms of landscaping use, compact varieties of Indian hawthorn are suitable for use as foundation shrubs, while larger varieties can be used for hedges, mass planting or screening.
Space the holes 18 to 24 inches apart. Space holes 2 feet apart 18 inches apart if you plan to plant multiple Indian hawthorn plants in a hedgerow or mass planting.
Indian hawthorn bushes are winter hardy in growing zones 7 through 10. It is mainly grown in southern states as trim flower hedges. Gardeners are able to prune them into small ornamental plants or use them as bonsai plants. Plants can grow 3 to 6 feet tall and wide with a mounding growth habit.
This shrub does best in full sun, which means at least six hours of direct sunlight on most days. However, it can tolerate light shade, although it will be healthier and flower better in full sun.
Flowerwood 2.5 Gal
Indian hawthorn can tolerate many soil types as long as there is good drainage. Wet soil can cause root rot of shrubs. Additionally, it prefers a soil pH that is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline.
A moderate amount of soil moisture is ideal for Indian Hawthorns. Young shrubs prefer consistently moist (but not soggy) soil, while established shrubs are drought tolerant.
This shrub grows in warm climates with mild winters. It is known to tolerate temperatures down to 5 degrees F, but prolonged cold can damage the leaves and even kill the plant. In warmer climates, the shrub can handle temperatures well into the 90s. It likes a moderate amount of moisture.
Indian hawthorn bushes are not heavy feeders. However, they will benefit from a spring feeding of an all-purpose, slow-release fertilizer.
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These shrubs do not require much pruning, as they naturally grow in an aesthetically pleasing mound. You can remove dead, damaged or diseased stems at any time of the year.
Deer often like to munch on Indian hawthorn bushes. Indian hawthorns are also susceptible to some pests, including aphids, nematodes, and scale. You can use an organic neem oil spray to combat any infestation. You can prevent such diseases by keeping the leaves dry and ensuring good air circulation.
Compact mounded shrub with substantial, dark, green, highly disease-resistant foliage that turns a dramatic burgundy-red in cold weather. Clusters of pink buds open to pale pink flowers, which fade to white, followed by a small blue-black evergreen fruit.
Its versatile qualities make this compact shrub and its dense evergreen foliage extremely popular in landscaping. New growth has red leaves that transition to dark green in summer and blooms in spring accented with creamy white fragrant flowers.
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This compact medium-growing plant grows up to 4 feet tall. Works best as a low hedge, accent, foundation, ad border plant.
It is easy to care for as it naturally maintains a neat, rounded shape without the need for trimming.
The shrub looks great year-round and becomes a focal point in spring when large, loose clusters of fragrant, pink or white flowers bloom.
In spring, Eleanor Taber will produce an abundance of small pink flowers and small black fruits in mid-summer.
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Once established, this shrub is drought tolerant and easy to maintain because of its uniform mounding growth habit. Fertilize this Indian hawthorn in spring with a slow-release fertilizer for best results.
In mid-spring, a show of snow-white tiny white flowers appears. Plant Snow White in well-drained garden soil and an area that will receive full sun to partial shade.
Indian hawthorn is a medium grower, so it won’t grow as fast as some trees, but it will reach a decent size over time. If you are looking for a fast growing plant, Indian Hawthorn is not the best choice.
This plant can adapt to a variety of soil types, as long as the soil is well drained. Sandy, clayey and loamy soils