Effects Of Hawthorn Berries – Hawthorn Berries is a well-known herb in traditional Chinese medicine that supports the cardiovascular system. It also provides botanical support for the kidneys and digestive system. Properties: Warm, Sweet
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Effects Of Hawthorn Berries
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Pdf) The Indian Hawthorn
Hawthorn is considered an important plant due to its efficacy in addressing various diseases such as kidney stones, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), indigestion and cardiovascular disorders etc. Hawthorn is a general name for more than 280 species of plants that belong to the genus Crataegus. Hawthorn belongs to the family of Rosaceae and flourishes mainly in the temperate parts of the world such as Europe, Eastern North America and Eastern Asia.
It is a thorny shrub that is notable for the therapeutic efficacy of its whole parts such as the berry, leaves, root, bark, flower and stem. Hawthorn can be consumed as a liquid extract, tea or in powder form. The flowers are white in color, the berries are reddish in color while the leaves are green in color.
The lobed leaves are arranged spirally on the long shoots while the fruit (haw) has an appearance similar to the stone of a plum. The bright red hawthorn fruit is distinguished by its tart taste and also tastes similar to an overripe apple. Each of the berries contains between 1 and 5 seeds but this totally depends on the cultivar.
Hawthorn is also known as hawberry, whitethorn, mayhaw, tejocotes, thornapple, shānzhā (山楂) or May-tree. The plant usually grows between 5 and 15 meters tall while the sharp pointed spines measure between 1 and 4 centimeters long. Some species of Crataegus include; Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus fluviatilis, Crataegus ambitiosa, Crataegus putnamiana, Crataegus berberifolia, Crataegus mercerensis, Crataegus okanaganensis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Crataegus pinnatifida and Crataegus viridis etc.
Hawthorn Berry Health Benefits
Various hawthorn cultivars are used for medicinal purposes due to their high nutritional, therapeutic and chemical constituents. Researchers have shown that hawthorn fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants such as flavonoids (ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, epicatechin, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin). Chang et al., (2002) reviewed 54 references addressing every aspect of hawthorn, including its chemical constituents, traditional uses, clinical effects and pharmacological properties.
They showed that both hawthorn flowers, fruits and leaves contain various chemical compounds such as triterpene acids (0.5% to 1.4% in the fruit), flavonoids (0.1% to 1% in the fruit, flavonoids (1% to 2% ) in flowers and leaves, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (1% to 3% in flowers, fruits and leaves), 14 sterols, organic acids (2% to 6%) and traces of cardioactive amines However, the primary bioactive compounds of hawthorn are the oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs). ) and flavonoids.
Both the leaves and the fruit of the hawthorn are edible. Hawthorn fruit can be used for the production of wine, juice, jelly, jam, rielitos, canned fruit, alcoholic beverages, hawthorn vinegar and liqueur. The young leaves can be added to salads and can be used to prepare soups and stews.
Lakshmi et al., (2013) examined the antibacterial potentials of hawthorn berry ethanolic extract (HBEE) against the enteric pathogens responsible for causing diarrhea. These enteric pathogens include; E. coli, S.boydii, S.typhi and V.cholerae.
Medicinal Plants Hawthorn
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using the macrobroth dilution method. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of the hawthorn berry showed significant antibacterial activity against the enteric bacterial pathogens tested at different concentrations. Therefore, hawthorn can be used to address enteric infections such as diarrhea.
Han et al., (2016) investigated the differential effects of polyphenol-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels (HPP) and hawthorn flesh peels (HFP) against diet-induced liver damage with high fructose in mice. The study showed that the main polyphenols in hawthorn are hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and rutin. These polyphenols were higher in hawthorn fruit peels than in hawthorn flesh peels. The results show that hawthorn fruit, especially its peel, is a rich source of natural polyphenolic chemopreventive agents for the treatment of liver disorders.
Chang et al., (2002) reported that hawthorn fruits are incorporated in traditional Chinese medicine to aid easy digestion and proper functioning of the stomach. This suggests why hawthorn is mostly prescribed for the treatment of indigestion with epigastric distension as well as for abdominal pain.
Çaliskan (2012) evaluated the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of 5 Crataegus species. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the fruit were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assays and β-carotene bleaching. The antioxidant capacity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results showed that the hawthorn fruit species can serve as an excellent source of natural antioxidants. Researchers have recommended that the consumption of hawthorn fruit and its products are a rich source of antioxidants for the body.
Hawthorn For A Healthy Heart: The Beat Goes On!
Keser et al., (2014) investigated the antioxidant properties and some bioactive compounds of hawthorn water and the ethanol extracts of ripe fruits, leaves and flowers. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated on ABTS•+, DPPH•, reducing power, superoxide scavenging, analysis of iron metal chelating activity and the phenolic content of the extracts using the Folin-Cioacalteu reagent. Flavonoids such as kaempferol, rutin, naringenin, apigenin, quercetin and myricetin were identified based on high performance liquid chromatography in the hawthorn extract.
The results showed that ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possess the highest activity in metal chelating activity and reducing power analysis. In addition, the aqueous flower extract has been shown to possess a higher flavonoid content than the aqueous leaf extract. Researchers have attributed hawthorn’s antioxidant ability to its polyphenolic content.
Lin et al., (2011) examined the lipid-lowering effects and processes involved in the actions of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity of hawthorn was positively linked to triterpenic acid (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) found in the extracts. They further studied the cholesterol-lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect with plant sterol esters (PSE) in hamsters.
These animals were fed a semisynthetic diet containing cholesterol at 0.08% (control) or the same diet supplemented with (a) hawthorn dichloromethane extract 0.37%, (b) plant sterol esters 0.24% and (c) hawthorn dichloromethane extract at 0.37% ( d) 0.24% plant sterol esters or (e) ursolic acid and a mixture of oleanolic acid (0.01%) for four consecutive weeks.
Hawthorn Facts And Health Benefits
Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, plant sterol esters, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid significantly reduced plasma non-HDL cholesterol (VLDL + LDL). The cholesterol ester content of the liver was also lowered accordingly. These researchers attributed the cholesterol-lowering effects of these ingredients to their abilities to boost neutral sterol excretion in the stool. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of hawthorn due to their ability to inhibit intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and its bioactive compounds (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) boosted the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.
Chang et al., (2005) reported that hawthorn can play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hyperlipidemia, heart failure, hypertension and arrhythmic (heart without rhythm or irregular heartbeat) -heart). The ability of this plant to treat cardiovascular diseases is attributed to its antioxidant constituents such as flavonoids.
In addition, Asher et al., (2012) attested that hawthorn extract has been used since ancient times for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Several clinical experiments have shown the efficacy of hawthorn for the treatment of heart failure and blood thinning