Oneseed Hawthorn Berries – The English hawthorn is a small deciduous tree or large shrub that belongs to the Rosaceae (rose) family. Although it was introduced to North America in the 1800s, it has only recently become a problem on the West Coast. The hawthorn’s branches have many strong spines and its bark is smooth, pale and grey. The leaves are alternate, leathery, and deeply lobed. The flowers grow in clusters of 10 – 20, are white with a pink tinge, and have 5 petals. The plant also has clusters of one-seeded red berries. Seeds are widely dispersed by birds.
English hawthorns look similar to the native hawthorn. The leaves of the hawthorn are only faintly lobed, and the fruit is black, rather than bright red.
Oneseed Hawthorn Berries
English Hawthorn grows in many types of soil, but seems to prefer undisturbed moist areas. In its native range, it often grows as a forest understory species. Here in Oregon, it can be found growing in riparian areas, pastures, woodlands, forests and fallow fields. Once established, it can survive moderate drought conditions
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English hawthorn can grow in spiky thickets that suppress native vegetation and make it difficult for wildlife to move. It also hybridizes with the native hawthorn, which can reduce the native hawthorn population and can create a weedier, more competitive variety. Birds may prefer its berries to those of native plants, which can cause a reduction in native plant regeneration. Fruits of four different species of Crataegus (clockwise from top left: C. coccinea, C. punctata, C. ambigua and C . douglasii)
The Mayflower, or marigold, is one of many hundreds of species of shrubs and trees in the Rosaceae family,
Native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia, North Africa, and North America. The name “hawthorn” was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often used as such in Britain and Ireland . The name is now applied to the tire gus and the related Asian Rhaphiolepis gus.
The stone epithet, Crataegus, is derived from the Greek kratos “strong” because of the great strength of the wood and akis “sharp”, referring to the thorns of some species.
Hawthorn Berries Of The Hawthorn Tree Or Bush (crataegus), In A Hedgerow Stock Photo
The name haw, which was originally an old glish term for a bank (from the Anglo-Saxon term haunghorn, “a fce with drain”),
With small pome fruits and (usually) spiny branches. The most common type of bark is smooth gray in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. Thorns are small, sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, and are usually 1–3 cm (1 ⁄2–1 in) long (recorded as up to
). The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves of most species have lobed or toothed margins and are somewhat variable in shape. The fruit, sometimes called a “right”, is similar to a berry but structurally a pome that contains between one and five bonfires that resemble the “stones” of plums, peaches, etc., which are fruits drupaceous in the same subfamily.
The number of species in the gus depends on taxonomic interpretation. Some botanists in the past recognized 1000 or more species,
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The gus probably first appeared in the Eoce, with the ancient area likely to be Eastern North America and Europe, which remained closely connected at the time due to the North Atlantic Land Bridge. The earliest known leaves of the gorse are from the Eoce of North America, with the earliest leaves from Europe being from the Oligoce.
The hawthorn provides food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, and the flowers are important to many nectar-feeding insects. The hawthorn is also used as a food plant by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species, such as the small eider moth, E. lanestris. Hawks are important to wildlife in winter, especially thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and scatter the seeds in their droppings.
The “haws” or fruits of the common hawthorn, C. monogyna, are edible. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make homemade jelly or wine.
The leaves are edible, and if they are collected in the spring when they are still young, they are more pungent for use in salads.
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The young leaves and flower buds, which are also edible, are called “bread and cheese” in the rural gland.
In the southern United States, the fruits of three native species are collectively known as mayhaws and are made into jellies that are considered a delicacy. The Kutai people of northwestern North America used red and black hawthorn fruits for food.
On Manitoulin Island, Ontario, some species with red fruits are called mulberries. During colonization, European settlers ate these fruits during the winter as the only remaining food supply. People who are born on the island are now called “haweaters”.
The fruits of Crataegus mexicana are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked, or in jam during the winter. They are stuffed in the brok piñatas during the traditional pre-Christmas celebration known as Las Posadas. They are also cooked with other fruits to prepare Christmas punch. The mixture of tejocote paste, sugar, and chili powder produces a popular Mexican candy called rielitos, which is produced by several brands.
Hawthorn Berries On A Hawthorn, Crataegus Monogyna, In The Autumn, Fall, In Somerset , England Stock Photo
The 4 cm fruits of the species Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) are tart, bright red, and resemble small crabapple fruits. They are used to make many types of Chinese snacks, including haw flakes covered in sugar syrup and put on a tanghulu stick. The fruits, known as 山楂 shān zhā in Chinese, are also used to produce jams, jellies, juices, alcoholic beverages, and other beverages; these could in turn be used in other dishes (for example, many older recipes for Cantonese sweet and sour sauce call for shānzhā jam). In South Korea, a liquor called sansachun (산사춘) is made from the fruit.
In Iran, the fruit of Crataegus (including Crataegus azarolus var. aronia, as well as other species) is called zâlzâlak and eaten raw as a snack, or made into a jam of the same name.
A meta-analysis of previous studies by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2008 concluded that there was evidence of “significant benefit in symptom control and physiological outcomes” for a hawthorn extract used as an adjuvant in the treatment of chronic heart failure.
He concluded that “Crataegus [hawthorn] preparations hold considerable potential as a useful remedy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease”. The review noted the need for further study of optimal dosages and concluded that although “many different theoretical interactions between Crataegus and orthodox medicines have been hypothesized … none [yet] have been confirm.
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Several species of hawthorn have been used in traditional medicine. The products used are often derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or related Crataegus species, “collectively known as hawthorn”, which do not necessarily distinguish between these species.
The dried fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida (called shān zhā in Chinese) is used in traditional Chinese medicine, mainly as a digestive aid. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata (Japanese hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar way. Other species (especially Crataegus laevigata) are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function.
The Kutai people of northwestern North America used black hawthorn fruits (Kutai language: kaǂa; rough pronunciation: kasha) for food, and red hawthorn fruits (Kutai language: ǂupǂi; rough pronunciation: shupshi) in traditional medicine.
Many species and hybrids are used as ornamental trees and street trees. The common hawthorn is widely used in Europe as a hedge plant. During the British Agricultural Revolution in the eighth and nineteenth centuries, hawthorn saplings were propagated in nurseries to create the new field boundaries required by the Land Enclosure Acts.
Hawthorn Berries And Leaves, Crataegus Azarolus, Autumn Fruit Tea Stock Photo
Several cultivars of Midland hawthorn C. laevigata have been selected for their pink or red flowers. Hawthorn is among the most recommended trees for water conservation landscapes.
The hawthorn can be used as a rootstock in the practice of grafting. It is compatible with Mespilus (medlar), and pear, and makes a tougher rootstock than quince, but hawthorn’s prickly sucking habit can be problematic.
Seedlings of Crataegus monogyna have been used to graft multiple species onto the same trunk, such as the pink hawthorn, pear tree, and medlar, and the result is trees that give pink and white flowers in May and fruit during summer. “Chip budding” has also been performed on hawthorn trunks to obtain branches of several types on the same tree. Such trees can be seen in Vigo, Spain, and in north-west France (mainly in Brittany).
The Scottish saying “Ne’er cast a cloot til Mey’s oot” gives a warning not to throw away any cloots (clothes) before summer is in full swing and the Mayflowers are in bloom. full
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The custom of using the flowering branches for decorative purposes on 1 May is of very early origin, but since the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1752, the tree has rarely been in full flower in the gland before the second week of that month. In the Scottish Highlands, the flowers may be as late as mid-June. The hawthorn is considered an emblem of hope, and its branches are said to have