Toxicity Hawthorn Berries – Fruit of four different species of Crataegus (clockwise from top left: C. coccinea, C. punctata, C. ambigua and C. douglasii)
Mayflower, or blueberry, is a group of several hundred species of shrubs and trees from the Rosaceae family,
Toxicity Hawthorn Berries
Native to the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere in Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America. The name “hawthorn” was originally applied to species native to northern Europe, especially common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unchanged name is often used in Britain and Ireland. The name is now also applied to the goshawk and the related Asiatic goose Rhaphiolepis.
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The Geric epithet, Crataegus, comes from the Greek kratos “strong” due to the great strength of the wood and akis “sharp”, referring to the thorns of some species.
The name haw, originally an old Glish term for a hedge (from the Anglo-Saxon hunghorn, “thorn bush”),
With tiny seeds and (usually) thorny branches. The most common type of bark is smooth gray in young trees, which develops shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. Thorns are small branches with sharp tips that spring either from other branches or from the trunk and are usually 1–3 cm (1 ⁄2 –1 in) long (recorded as up to
). The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on scraped shoots on branches or twigs. The leaves of most species have lobed or toothed margins and are somewhat variable in shape. The fruit, sometimes known as a “haw”, is berry-like, but structurally a berry containing from one to five pits that resemble the “stone” of plums, peaches, etc., which are drupes in the same subfamily.
The Red Fruit Of Crataegus Monogyna, Known As The Hawthorn Or Single Seed Hawthorn Or May Flower, Major, Blackthorn, White Horn, Motherboard Stock Photo
The number of species in the goose depends on the taxonomic interpretation. Some botanists have recognized 1000 or more species in the past,
Gus probably first appeared in the Eocene, and the ancestral area was probably eastern North America and Europe, which at that time remained closely connected by the North Atlantic land bridge. The earliest known goose leaves are from the Eocene of North America, with the earliest leaves from Europe being from the Oligocene.
Hawthorn provides food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, and the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding insects. Hawthorn is also used as a food plant by the larvae of many species of Lepidoptera, such as the small moth, E. lanestris. Ashes are important for wildlife in winter, especially thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the pads and disperse the seeds in their droppings.
The fruits of the common hawthorn, C. monogyna, are edible. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make jelly or homemade wine.
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The leaves are edible, and if they are harvested in the spring while they are still young, they are better used in salads.
The young leaves and flower buds, which are also edible, are known as “bread and cheese” in rural gardens.
In the southern United States, the fruits of the three native species are collectively known as mayhaws and are used to make jellies that are considered a delicacy. The Kutai people of northwestern North America used the fruits of red and black hawthorn for food.
On Manitoulin Island, Ontario, some species with red fruits are called hawthorns. During colonization, European settlers ate this fruit during the winter as the only remaining food supply. People born on the island today are called “haweaters”.
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The fruits of Crataegus mexicana are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked or made into jam during the winter. They are stuffed into piñatas brok during the traditional pre-Christmas celebration known as Las Posadas. They are also cooked with other fruits to make Christmas punch. A mixture of tejocota paste, sugar and chili powder produces a popular Mexican candy called rielitos, which is produced by several brands.
The fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) 4 cm long are sour, bright red and resemble small apple fruits. They are used to make many types of Chinese snacks, including hawka flakes and are coated in sugar syrup and placed on a tanghula stick. The fruits, called 山楂 shān zhā in Chinese, are also used to make jams, jellies, juices, spirits and other beverages; these in turn could be used in other dishes (for example, many older recipes for Cantonese sweet and sour sauce call for shānzhā jam). In South Korea, a liqueur called sansachun (산사춘) is made from the fruits.
In Iran, the fruits of Crataegus (including Crataegus azarolus var. Aronia, as well as other species) are known as zâlzâlak and are eaten raw as a snack, or made into a jam known by the same name.
A 2008 meta-analysis of previous studies by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that there was evidence of “significant benefit in symptom control and physiological outcomes” for hawthorn extract used as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic heart failure.
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Concluded that “Crataegus [hawthorn] preparations have a significant amount as a useful medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases”. The review pointed to the need for further study of best doses and concluded that although “many different theoretical interactions between Crataegus and orthodox drugs have been postulated … none [yet] have been substantiated.
Several species of hawthorn are used in traditional medicine. The products used are often derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata or related Crataegus species, “commonly known as hawthorn”, without necessarily distinguishing between these species.
The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida (called shān zhā in Chinese) are used in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as a digestive aid. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata (Japanese hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar way. Other species (especially Crataegus laevigata) are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function.
The Kutai people of northwestern North America used the fruit of the black hawthorn (Kutai language: kaǂa; approximate pronunciation: kasha) for food, and the fruit of the red hawthorn (Kutai language: ǂupǂi; approximate pronunciation: shupshi) in traditional medicine.
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Many species and hybrids are used as ornamental and street trees. Common hawthorn is widely used as a hedge plant in Europe. During Britain’s Agricultural Revolution in the eighth and nineteenth centuries, hawthorn seedlings were propagated en masse in nurseries to create the new field boundaries required by the Prohibition Acts.
Several cultivars of Midland Hawthorn C. laevigata have been selected for their pink or red flowers. Hawthorn is among the trees most recommended for water conservation landscapes.
Hawthorn can be used as a rootstock in grafting practice. It is compatible for grafting with Mespilus (medlar), and with pear, and makes a firmer rootstock than quince, but the prickliness of hawthorn can be problematic.
Crataegus monogyna seedlings have been used to graft multiple species onto the same trunk, such as pink hawthorn, pear tree and medlar, resulting in trees that produce pink and white flowers in May and fruit in summer. Hawthorn trees are also “budded” in order to have branches of several varieties on the same tree. Such trees can be found in Vigo, Spain, and in northwestern France (mainly in Brittany).
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The Scots saying “Don’t throw your bra to Mey’s oot” conveys a warning not to throw away your bra (clothes) before summer has fully arrived and the Mayflowers (hawthorn flowers) are in full bloom.
The custom of using May 1st for decorative purposes of flowering branches is very early, but since the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1752, the tree has seldom been in full bloom in the gland before the second Sunday of that month. In the Scottish Highlands, flowers may not appear until mid-June. The hawthorn tree is considered an emblem of hope, and its branches are said to have been carried by the ancient Greeks in wedding processions and used to decorate the altar of Hymaeus. The supposition that the tree was the source of Jesus’ crown of thorns undoubtedly gave rise to the tradition among the French peasantry (as early as 1911) that it uttered a groan and weep on Good Friday, and probably the old folk superstition in Great Britain and Ireland that misfortunes followed the plucking of hawthorn . Branches of Glastonbury thorn (C. monogyna ‘Biflora’,
Sometimes called C. oxyacantha var. praecox), which blooms both in December and in spring, were formerly highly prized in the glands, on account of the leg that the tree was originally the staff of Joseph of Arimathea.
Follows and reinterprets many European legends and myths in which the white thorn (hawthorn), which is also called the May tree, is ctral.
Plant Spotlight: Hawthorn
Along with yew and apple. It was once said to heal a broken heart. In Ireland, the red fruit is, or was called Johnny MacGorey or Magory.
Serbian folklore that spread throughout the Balkans records that hawthorn (Serbian hawthorn or hawthorn) is necessary to kill vampires, and the stakes used to kill them must be made of thorn wood.
In Gaelic folklore, hawthorn (Scottish Gaelic, sgitheach and Irish, sceach) ‘signifies a trance to the other world’ and is strongly associated with fairies.
Knowledge says that it is very